Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? In 53 BCE he subdued further revolts in Gaul and bridged the Rhine again for a second raid. The accounts are written in the form of terse, dry, factual reports that look impersonal and objective, yet every recorded fact has been carefully selected and presented. His generosity to defeated opponents, magnanimous though it was, did not win their affection. But for this the Hellenic element might not have been present in sufficient strength to make its decisive impact on Christianity and Islam. Julius Caesar had not hesitated to commit atrocities against “barbarians” when it had suited him, but he was almost consistently magnanimous in his treatment of his defeated Roman opponents. His physical energy was of the same order. Rome’s military superiority lay in its mastery of strategy, tactics, discipline, and military engineering. If he were to stand in 49 BCE for the consulship for 48 BCE, he would be out of office, and therefore in danger, during the last 10 months of 49 BCE. He prepared his seven books on the Gallic War for publication in 51 bce when he still had serious revolts in Gaul on his hands, and he wrote his books on the civil war and his Anticato in the hectic years between 49 and 44 bce. With these traits, he was definitely no ordinary man; to the Romans, he was a godlike figure that caused the senators to fear him. Julius Caesar, TP. This final achievement of Caesar’s looms much larger than his conquest of Gaul, when it is viewed in the wider setting of world history and not just in the narrower setting of the Greco-Roman civilization’s present daughter civilization in the West. The modern calendar, … He obtained the governorship of Farther Spain for 61–60 BCE. Both Cassius and Brutus are concerned by Caesar’s rise to power, but Cassius’s … What would he have done with this time? The Bituriges insisted on standing siege in their town Avaricum (Bourges), and Vercingetorix was unable to save it from being taken by storm within one month. But if he had not also been something more than this he would not have been the supremely great man that he undoubtedly was. In spite of the inadequacy of his resources, Caesar seems to have chosen a political career as a matter of course. Caesar, who had assiduously cultivated Pompey’s friendship, now entered into a secret pact with him. Whoever had been consul in this critical year would have had to initiate such legislation, whatever his personal political predilections. In 78 BCE, after Sulla’s death, he returned to Rome and started on his political career in the conventional way, by acting as a prosecuting advocate—of course, in his case, against prominent Sullan counter-revolutionaries. After this paragraph about dominant planets, of Julius Caesar, here are the character traits that you must read more carefully than the previous texts since they are very specific: the texts about dominant planets only give background information about the personality and remain quite general: they emphasize or, on the contrary, mitigate different particularities or facets of a personality. Military manpower was supplied by the Roman peasantry. He won his soldiers’ devotion by the victories that his intellectual ability, applied to warfare, brought them. Difference between Soviet Union and Russia. Take the personality quiz below and find out which character you’re most Last week we discussed George Washington and MBTI test ISTJs. All Caesar’s speeches and writings, lost and extant, apparently served political purposes. Thus clemency was probably not just a matter of policy. All Caesar’s speeches and writings, lost and extant, apparently served political purposes. The old Roman calendar was inaccurate and manipulated for political purposes. As for the lost Anticato, a reply to Cicero’s eulogy of Caesar’s dead opponent Marcus Porcius Cato, it is a testimony to Caesar’s political insight that he made the time to write it, in spite of the overwhelming military, administrative, and legislative demands on him. Caesar’s role in the play is not immense, though he dominates the play, even after his demise in the third act of the play. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. He realized that Cato, in giving his life for his cause (46 BCE), had made himself posthumously into a much more potent political force than he had ever been in his lifetime. In 90 BCE, Rome’s Italian allies had seceded from Rome because of the Roman government’s obstinate refusal to grant them Roman citizenship, and, as consul, Lucius Caesar had introduced emergency legislation for granting citizenship to the citizens of all Italian ally states that had not taken up arms or that had returned to their allegiance. At his death, Julius Caesar was on the point of starting out on a new military campaign to avenge and retrieve Crassus’s disastrous defeat in 53 BCE by the Parthians. Gaul, too, would have sunk deeper into barbarism when the Franks overran it, if it had not been associated with the civilized Mediterranean world for more than 500 years as a result of Caesar’s conquest. He increased the size of the Senate and made its personnel more representative of the whole Roman citizenry. Caesar then cowed the opposition by employing some of Pompey’s veterans to make a riot, and the distribution was carried out. Caesar wintered in Alexandria, fighting with the populace and dallying with Queen Cleopatra. He had less than a year’s grace for this huge task of reconstruction before his assassination in 44 BCE in the Senate House at Rome on March 15 (the Ides of March). But even if they were acting on principle, they were blind to the truth that the reign of the Roman nobility was broken beyond recall and that even Julius Caesar might not have been able to overthrow the old regime if its destruction had not been long overdue. Probably Julius Caesar looked upon these as trivial recreations. As for Pompey, his growing jealousy of Caesar had led him so far toward the nobility that he could not come to terms with Caesar again without loss of face. Julius Caesar is seen as the greatest leader Rome ever had and he was one person that dominated most of his enemies and expanded the Roman Empire. It was arranged that Pompey and Crassus were to be the consuls for 55 BCE and were to get laws promulgated prolonging Caesar’s provincial commands for another five years and giving Crassus a five-year term in Syria and Pompey a five-year term in Spain. In 69 or 68 BCE Caesar was elected quaestor (the first rung on the Roman political ladder). Caesar conquered these piecemeal, and the concerted attempt made by a number of them in 52 BCE to shake off the Roman yoke came too late. But they failed to prevent Caesar’s election as the other consul. Brutus emerges as the most complex character in Julius Caesar and is also the play’s tragic hero. He won his soldiers’ devotion by the victories that his intellectual ability, applied to warfare, brought them. Year 12 Ancient History. If he had not done this when he did it, Rome and the Greco-Roman world might have succumbed, before the beginning of the Christian era, to barbarian invaders in the West and to the Parthian Empire in the East. He is a general and is married to Calphurnia. He thus committed the first act of war. Caesar himself initiated a noncontroversial and much-needed act for punishing misconduct by governors of provinces. At Alexandria, probably aged 53, he saved himself from sudden death by his prowess as a swimmer. Between 58 and 50 BCE, Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul up to the left bank of the Rhine and subjugated it so effectively that it remained passive under Roman rule throughout the Roman civil wars between 49 and 31 BCE. Yet, though not lovable, Julius Caesar was and is attractive, indeed fascinating. By liquidating the scandalous and bankrupt rule of the Roman nobility, he gave the Roman state—and with it the Greco-Roman civilization—a reprieve that lasted for more than 600 years in the East and for more than 400 years in the relatively backward West. But Caesar’s name, like Alexander’s, is still on people’s lips throughout the Christian and Islamic worlds. In 49 BCE he marched, within a single campaigning season, from the Rubicon to Brundisium and from Brundisium to Spain. He did not succeed, however. Yet, though not lovable, Caesar was and is attractive, indeed fascinating. W hen Julius Caesar was born in the year 100 BC, Rome was a republic. Cassius is the most shrewd and active member of the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. He is a political idealist, but he becomes a conspirator out of his love for freedom and patriotism. Toward the end of 49 BCE, he followed Pompey across the Adriatic Sea and retrieved a reverse at Dyrrachium by winning a decisive victory at Pharsalus on August 9, 48 BCE. He is a powerful public figure, but he appears also as a husband, a master to his servants, a dignified military leader, and a loving friend. In his absence from Rome, Caesar was made a member of the politico-ecclesiastical college of pontifices; and on his return he gained one of the elective military tribuneships. The mark of Caesar’s genius in his writings is that though they were written for propaganda they are nevertheless of outstanding literary merit. Caesar’s death was partly due to his clemency and impatience, which, in combination, were dangerous for his personal security. Brutus comes very nearer to the hearts of the readers. With h is upright personality, honesty, love for freedom and his tragic flaw Brutus becomes the dominant character in the play. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In 47 BCE he fought a brief local war in northeastern Anatolia with Pharnaces, king of the Cimmerian Bosporus, who was trying to regain Pontus, the kingdom of his father, Mithradates. At the beginning of the play, Caesar has just defeated the faction of his rival, Pompey. Principal Focus: Students gain an understanding of Julius Caesar in the context of his time Welcome to your exclusive 12 Ancient De La Salle insight into the world of Julius Caesar. In 46 he crushed their army at Thapsus and returned to Rome, only to leave in November for Farther Spain to deal with a fresh outbreak of resistance, which he crushed on March 17, 45 BCE, at Munda. Crassus—like Pompey, a former lieutenant of Sulla—had been one of the most active of Pompey’s obstructors so far. On January 10–11, 49 BCE, Caesar led his troops across the little river Rubicon, the boundary between his province of Cisalpine Gaul and Italy proper. NOW 50% OFF! His first target, Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella, was defended by Quintus Hortensius, the leading advocate of the day, and was acquitted by the extortion-court jury, composed exclusively of senators. The actual question of substance was whether the misgovernment of the Greco-Roman world by the Roman nobility should be allowed to continue or whether it should be replaced by an autocratic regime. In all these, Julius Caesar was a supreme virtuoso. Though some of the most powerful noble families were patrician, patrician blood was no longer a political advantage; it was actually a handicap, since a patrician was debarred from holding the paraconstitutional but powerful office of tribune of the plebs. Caesar is the most powerful man in Rome and its ruler. Cisalpine Gaul gave Caesar a military recruiting ground; Transalpine Gaul gave him a springboard for conquests beyond Rome’s northwest frontier. If he had not done this when he did it, Rome and the Greco-Roman world might have succumbed, before the beginning of the Christian era, to barbarian invaders in the West and to the Parthian Empire in the East. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? BCE, Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 BCE, Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 BCE), victor in the civil war of 49–45 BCE, and dictator (46–44 BCE), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March. As Caesar approached Rome, Pompey started to fear him. The first bout of the civil war moved swiftly. Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. His accounts of his wars are subtly contrived to make the unsuspecting reader see Caesar’s acts in the light that Julius Caesar chooses. His generosity to defeated opponents, magnanimous though it was, did not win their affection. He won his soldiers’ devotion by the victories that his intellectual ability, applied to warfare, brought them. He spent the year 50 BCE in organizing the newly conquered territory. Caesar was not and is not lovable. For the next 150 years, Cato the martyr continued to be a nuisance, sometimes a menace, to Caesar’s successors. Under the Roman Empire the Near East was impregnated with Hellenism for six or seven more centuries. Politically, Caesar took control of Rome's destiny, guiding it to become an empire that would rule the ancient world for another 500 years. For instance, in the winter of 57–56 bce he found time to visit his third province, Illyria, as well as Cisalpine Gaul; and in the interval between his campaigns of 55 and 54 bce he transacted public business in Cisalpine Gaul and went to Illyria to settle accounts with the Pirustae, a turbulent tribe in what is now Albania. Caesar raised his ransom, raised a naval force, captured his captors, and had them crucified—all this as a private individual holding no public office. Indeed, the Gallic cavalry was probably superior to the Roman, horseman for horseman. Caesar’s most amazing characteristic is his energy, intellectual and physical. This name has survived, as has Caesar’s reform of the calendar. His creditors did not let him leave Rome until Crassus had gone bail for a quarter of his debts; but a military expedition beyond the northwest frontier of his province enabled Caesar to win loot for himself as well as for his soldiers, with a balance left over for the treasury. He then returned to Rome to start putting the Greco-Roman world in order. By dallying with her at Alexandria, he risked losing what he had just won at Pharsalus. It was true that Sextus Caesar, who was perhaps the dictator’s uncle, had been one of the consuls for 91 BCE; and Lucius Caesar, one of the consuls for 90 BCE, was a distant cousin, whose son and namesake was consul for 64 BCE. Julius Caesar was a military general and statesman during the Roman Republic. The whole Mediterranean world was, in fact, at the mercy of the Roman nobility and of a new class of Roman businessmen, the equites (“knights”), which had grown rich on military contracts and on tax farming. You are currently viewing the International edition of our site.. You might also want to visit our French Edition.. Julius Caesar changed the course of the history of the Greco-Roman world decisively and irreversibly. He won his soldiers’ devotion by the victories that his intellectual ability, applied to warfare, brought them. He was exceptionally bright, well-educated, and well-read. Of all the characters in the play "Julius Caesar", Brutus is the most appealing one. Of these, his speeches, letters, and pamphlets are lost. Which Julius Caesar character are YOU?! On the eve of the consular elections for 59 BCE, the Senate sought to allot to the two future consuls for 59 BCE, as their proconsular provinces, the unprofitable supervision of forests and cattle trails in Italy. He then crushed Ariovistus, a German soldier of fortune from beyond the Rhine. Out of the characters in the play which one do you most resemble? In 58 BCE Rome’s northwestern frontier, established in 125 BCE, ran from the Alps down the left bank of the upper Rhône River to the Pyrenees, skirting the southeastern foot of the Cévennes and including the upper basin of the Garonne River without reaching the Gallic shore of the Atlantic. Julius Caesar was not and is not lovable. He was also generous in granting Roman citizenship to aliens. He found that he could not extricate himself from this dilemma by reducing his demands, as he eventually did, to the absolute minimum required for his security. He showed a human spiritual greatness in his generosity to defeated opponents, which was partly responsible for his assassination. They planned to cut off the Roman forces from Caesar, who had been wintering on the other side of the Alps. The fate of Crassus’s army had shown that the terrain in northern Mesopotamia favoured Parthian cavalry against Roman infantry. Julius Caesar substituted for the Roman oligarchy an autocracy that could never afterward be abolished. Rome’s victory over Carthage in the Second Punic War (218–201 BCE) had made Rome the paramount power in the Mediterranean basin; an influential Roman noble family’s clients (that is, protégés who, in return, gave their patrons their political support) might include kings and even whole nations, besides numerous private individuals. the Roman Empire, as well as indirectly for the same with regards to Britain. This cool-headed man of genius with an erratic vein of sexual exuberance undoubtedly changed the course of history at the western end of the Old World. Caesar is about to be offered the crown of Rome, a fact which divides the people around him. The issue was brought to a head by one of the consuls for 50 BCE, Gaius Claudius Marcellus. But if he had not also been something more than this he would not have been the supremely great man that he undoubtedly was. Character Analysis and Traits Brutus is known as a tragic hero in the play Julius Caesar because he faces a major conflict between his loyalty to his … The civil war was a tragedy, for war was not wanted either by Caesar or by Pompey or even by a considerable part of the nobility, while the bulk of the Roman citizen body ardently hoped for the preservation of peace. It was evident that the misgovernment of the Roman state and the Greco-Roman world by the Roman nobility could not continue indefinitely and it was fairly clear that the most probable alternative was some form of military dictatorship backed by dispossessed Italian peasants who had turned to long-term military service. By this time, however, the three parties that counted politically were all entrapped. 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