smooth sumac edible

13,335) Honewort; Wild Chervil Latin Name: Cryptotaenia canadensis Retrieved: supply the date, from http://wildfoods4wildlife.com. As with most wild foods, timing is important with this small tree. View photos of the edible and medicinal plant Rhus glabra (Smooth sumac), profiled in Wild Edible Plants of Texas. Staghorn sumac, winged sumac, and smooth sumac are the most common sumac species in Georgia. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 6 November 2015). Two factors suggested that this spring and summer would witness extraordinary blooms of wildflowers on... Pinedrops parasitizes the mycorrhizal fungus directly, stealing water, minerals, carbohydrates and nutrients, but supplying nothing in return. Species with red berries, including smooth and fragrant sumac, produce edible berries, while species with white berries, including poison ivy, have poisonous berries. Sumac tends to get a bad rap for a number of reasons, but you might be surprised to find that smooth sumac is just one of many edible varieties of sumac. Naitve Americans also used sumac leaves in the smoking mixture call kinninkinick. The berries tend to be ripe in the summer. So set up the vase under a roof in the enclosure. An acid flavour, it has been used as a substitute for lemon juice. Poison sumac is in the same genus as poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), a separate genus from smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), winged sumac (Rhus copallinum), and staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina). The foliage usually turns brilliant red, reddish orange, or purplish red in early autumn. Peterson, L.A.(1977). Sumac species are dioecious, meaning that a plant is either male or female. Brilliant Fall Colors. c/o Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg. The Smooth Sumac’s Spectacular colors and Endless Appeal. Since there are poisonous plants in the Anacardiaceae family, and since poison sumac does resemble some of the food sumacs during its foliage stage, care should be taken when foraging. Foraging Sumac- Edible Wild Plant 1. 12,334) Staghorn Sumac Latin Name: Rhus typhina Audubon Society Flowers (pg. Approximately 250 species of sumac are known, from all of the continents, and they follow one simple, very handy generalization.". Now that that’s out of the way, let’s talk about the edible sumacs. Approximately 250 species of sumac are known, from all of the continents, and they follow one simple, very handy generalization. The leaves are feather-compound, with 3 to 25 leaflets, depending on the species. It provides beautiful leaves and some fruit. Also, if you look at the base of a leaflet off one of the compound leaves, Tree-of-Heaven has an odd large tooth near the base of its leaflet. Soil & site, starting, maintenance, harvesting & using the edible berries. As this specialist feeds it drills many tiny holes in the leaves. Then just break off the berry cluster and take it home! The Brazilian Pepper has long ovalish leaves and clusters of bright pink/red smooth, hairless berries growing off stems. When you find edible sumac, taste it before taking it - - put a fuzzy berry in your mouth. But they are overall low in energy and protein (Johnson, 2000). The mixture should not be boiled since this will release tannic acids and make the drink astringent. Both glabra and trilobata have rhizomes that send up young stems and this form of asexual reproduction produces clones of sumac. Smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) is one of the most common roadside trees in Kentucky. Species with red berries, including smooth and fragrant sumac, produce edible berries, while species with white berries, including poison ivy, have poisonous berries. Does this lend itself to being a good enrichment item? Sumac is 8th on our Fabulous Fruit List, and it is an easy beginner forager plant to collect. Elpel, T.J. (2013) Botany in a Day (APG). Toxicodendron (the Poison  ivy, Poison oak, Poison sumac family.) your own Pins on Pinterest Smooth Sumac is very similar to the Staghorn Sumac, except it is a smaller plant, usually 10 to 15 feet high, that is normally a large shrub and it does not have hairy twigs or fruit clusters. Mitton: Smooth sumac’s deep red berries are edible, but its leaves poisonous Plant was an important source of food, medicine, weaving materials and dyes To make sumac spice, you first lay your sumac out to dry. Sumacs are a transitional species in most forests. But they are overall low in energy and protein (Johnson, 2000). Young twigs could be plucked from a shrub, peeled and eaten as a crunchy salad. Edible. A thicket of smooth sumac retained some of its berries in January, though most of them were gone. How to Store Prepared Fruit: You can remove berries off the cluster or keep the whole berry cluster intact. The leaves are skinny, lance shaped. All edible sumacs have red, rough-textured ones. Unlike poison sumac, which yields a white berry, all the edible varieties of sumac have bright red berries. It is 43rd on the Best Browse List. Sumac does not have this extra large tooth. Both grow 10 to 15 feet tall with a similar width and have bright red fall colors. Sumac is typically dried, ground, and sold as a spice, especially in Middle Eastern markets. While all four are in the same family (Cashew), the latter three are non-poisonous. The edible sumac has terminal clusters of garnet, purse-shaped berries with a fine coating of fuzz (often gray.) Let the berries steep for 10 to 15 minutes. Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina), Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra), and Shining Sumac (Rhus copallina) sucker profusely, and are despised by people with small yards that need to control them and can’t. Here are the four key items to look for in order to positively identify staghorn and smooth sumac (taken from my previous article): Compound Toothed Leaves: Both species have pinnately compound leaves with serrated edges. The leaves of the three species differ slightly as well. Poison sumac can produce rashes and itching in people with a sensitivity, and should be learned so you can avoid it. Navajo used fermented berries to create an orange-brown dye, while a different extraction from berries produced red. Wearing disposable or washable gloves, run or crush a leaf of Tree-of-Heaven in your through hand—gloved so in case it is poison sumac you will not have skin contact. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Peterson, R.T., McKenny, M. (1968). For more information, see References & Citations, © 2020 Wildfoods 4 Wildlife - Website by Clayton Hamshar, winged all along the main axis of the leaf, Upright clusters of fuzzy, pea-size round red fruits, About 30 leaflets per leaf and will have a terminal leaflet straight out the tip of the leaf. Shrubs are … Edible sumac has red fruit borne in terminal clusters. Staghorn sumac’s fruit is held in tighter clusters than those of smooth sumac. I lay mine out on newspaper that I put in a box, which I... 2. Discover (and save!) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. So I don’t think you will confuse the fruits. That being said, there are some people who have allergies to the cashew family generally (cashews, mangoes, pistachios), and if you have these sensitivities, then you should avoid handling ANY of the Rhus species. Just make sure the berries are in a dense, upright, red cluster. Staghorn sumac, however, is an entirely different variety, and is both edible and delicious! Inviting red berries of smooth sumac remain on the twigs through winter, available to birds and mammals. When soaked for 10 - 30 minutes in hot or cold water it makes a very refreshing lemonade-like drink (without any fizz of course) [85, 95, 101, 102, 149, 159, 183]. Here are some of the ways people around the world use it, plus some instructions for harvesting, drying, ... We have smooth sumac in central Illinois. Sumac berries are also used in beekeeping smokers. Roots produced a yellow dye and a light-yellow dye could be made from the pulverized pulp of stems. In effect, it parasitizes a mutualism after germinating in the grasp of a fungus. Edible Use Name Family: Smooth Sumac Family: Anacardiaceae Rhus glabra Description: A small tree or shrub that has compound leaves. The red berries are beloved by wild-edibles enthusiasts, who use them to make a kind of "pink lemonade" and jellies. They decorate our roadsides. Staghorn Sumac, Rhus Typhina; European Sumac, Rhus Coriaria; Smooth Sumac, Rhus Glabra; Fragrant Sumac, Rhus Aromatica; Desert or little leaf Sumac, Rhus Microphyllia; Lemonade Sumac, Rhus Integrifolia; Sugar Sumac, Rhus Ovata; Dwarf Sumac, Rhus Copallina Root - peeled and eaten raw [161, 183]. Tree-of-Heaven produces a very different seedpod cluster, a tassle of winged seeds in July or August, generally before sumac berries mature. My video on sumacs is here. Edible parts of Smooth Sumach: Fruit - raw or cooked. I surmised that they tumbled from the tree while delicately adjusting their positions. Weakly, A.S., Ludwig, J.C., & Townsend, J.F. A drupe consists of 100 to 700 flowers and a fertilized female flower develops into a berry with a single seed—so only females produce berries. Wildflowers: Northeastern/North-central North America. USDA, NRCS. All edible sumacs have red, rough-textured ones. Leaf Description: The large leaf is made up of 31 leaflets that are toothed. For lemonade I pick the good berries from each head, pour room-temp water over them, mash with a large spoon (I use a potato masher), and steep about 15-30 min. The poison sumac has white berries and prefers swamps and wet areas. The leaves themselves alternate along the branch. See photo below. Description, maps, photos & web resources. Flowers bloom in June and July they are in dense panicles of greenish-red small five petaled flowers. A surprising range of pigments were extracted from sumac for dyeing baskets and blankets. Approximately 250 species of sumac are known, from all of the continents, and they follow one simple, very handy generalization. However, one species, Rhus glabra, (Roos GLAY-bra) the “smooth sumac” is found in all contiguous 48 states.The Indians used the shoots of the Rhus glabra in “salads” though many ethonobotanists say the natives never really made “salads” as we know the term. The poison sumac tree (Toxicodendron vernix) is found only in very wet soils, like swamps and marshes—which is a big clue, because the sumacs we are seeking are usually in drier soils. Aside from terminal clusters of red berries, notice Smooth Sumac's bloom-covered smooth young twigs and large pinnately compound leaves. The fruit is rather small and with very little flesh, but it is produced on fairly large panicles and so is easily harvested. It has edible relatives that are similar, such as Smooth Sumac. How-to guide. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas Press. Smooth sumac is well known for its brilliant red fall foliage and its deep red berries. Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora (http://www.vaplantatlas.org). A trilobata leaf develops as three completely separated lobes, while a glabra leaf is compound, one to two feet long, with 11 to 31 pointed leaflets per leaf—these remind me of the leaves of ferns. Then zoom in on your state until the individual counties display in green. So as long as you see the red velvet looking cone of berries, you’ll be fine. Sumac is a deciduous shrub native to North America found in all 48 mainland states of USA and in southern Canada. Staghorn & Smooth Sumac. Both species grow well in containers, where they stay much smaller. It is a woody shrub that grows three to six feet tall in the Rocky Mountains, but 10 to 20 feet tall elsewhere. Scott, M. (2013). The leaflets are dark green and smooth above, and pale beneath, except along the midrib. Chemical defenses in the leaves of sumacs are diverse and potent. Tea prepared from green twigs was used to treat tuberculosis. Tea prepared from leaves was used to treat asthma and diarrhea. The moisture content of sumac is very low, so they are not likely to mold if kept in an airtight jar in the refrigerator. Once the berry clusters are dry, either all the way, or somewhat, stick the whole cluster into a food processor (but... 3. This chart may help you identify species: Caution: The milky sap of Rhus spp. 12,334) Staghorn Sumac Latin Name: Rhus typhina Audubon Society Flowers (pg. Johnson, Kathleen A. Move or stir sumac at least once a day. The leaves of poison sumac differ in being hairless and shiny with smooth margins. If a portion of a branch, leaves and berry cluster are harvested as one, the branch can be set up in a durable, weighted, dry vase and allow the birds to forage the berries off the plant at will. To give you an idea how concerned you need to be about the risk of encountering the poison sumac in your environs, go to the USDA website http://plants.usda.gov/checklist.html, enter the scientific name Toxicodendron vernix, put a checkmark in your state’s box, scroll down and click on display results. Photo by Jeff Mitton. Rub the berries around with your hands, then let soak for about half an hour. Species with red berries, including smooth and fragrant sumac, produce edible berries, while species with white berries, including poison ivy, have poisonous berries. Harvesting Fruit:  Using pruning shears or scissors, cut off the berry cluster once it is deep red in color. The upper branches of smooth sumac are short and crooked. Virginia Botanical Associates. The arsenal of chemical defenses is so effective that only the sumac leaf beetle, Blepharida rhois, can eat the leaves of smooth sumac and fragrant sumac. Place in food processor. An acid flavour, it has been used as a substitute for lemon juice[2]. New York: Dover Publications. Juice extracted from roots was believed to cure warts. Eventually the leaves will drop and the berry clusters will be left standing alone to face winter as an easily recognizable winter silhouette. It has edible relatives that are similar, such as Smooth Sumac. Form: shrub, or some sumac species are small trees, Citation: Guenther, K. (2019, March 10) Smooth sumac as wildlife food [Web log post.] Now that you know what to look for, I’ll bet you’ll find wild edible sumac all over the place! “The most important distinction is in the berries, which are whitish, waxy, hairless and hang in loose, grape-like clusters – quite unlike the berries of the edible sumacs. Exposed to rain and snow over time, some nutrients are washed away. You can differentiate the species by the fact that the branches of staghorn sumac have a furry texture. If it's good and lemony you'll know it! Edible sumacs are found in upland areas and don’t like to get their feet wet. Berries were frequently eaten raw but also made into a refreshing lemonade. Another common wildlife food genus, related to sumac. The flowers, which range from green to white, are arranged in upright clusters called drupes. The fruit has a citrusy yet sour flavour that is best enjoyed as a … Staghorn sumac has very fuzzy stems, hence the name staghorn. Now that that’s out of the way, let’s talk about the edible sumacs. However, like Eastwood’s good side in the movie, these same species can sooth us as we drive by on the freeway in a race to wherever. Deer, small mammals and numerous species of birds consume sumac berries from both smooth and fragrant sumac. Using: When the Staghorn and Smooth Sumac berry clusters are ripe, pick two or three clusters off the plant, take home and remove the outer, healthy looking berries into a bowl, pour warm, but not boiling water over them. Roots were boiled to extract an antiseptic applied to wounds and ulcers. 11,333) Smooth Sumac Latin Name: Rhus glabra Audubon Society Flowers (pg. An amplectic pair of treehoppers, Telamona monticola, was on a CU sidewalk beneath a swamp oak tree, Quercus bicolor. It is extremely drought tolerant and is often found in disturbed areas, open woodlands, prairies, on dry rocky hillsides, and in canyons. Exposed to rain and snow over time, some nutrients are washed away. Tree of Heaven’s crushed leaves have a strong peanut-like smell, which is an easy identifier. Sumac berries are a dry, long lasting food source well into winter, so you don’t have to worry about the fruits rotting, souring or fermenting. It also spreads by ground suckers to form a colony. Native Americans were aware that red sumac berries were edible—analyses of remains of human feces contained sumac seeds dated to 1,200 CE at Antelope House in Canyon de Chelly and from at least 2,000 years ago at Puebloan sites across the Four Corners area. Rhus glabra, commonly called smooth sumac, is a Missouri native, deciduous shrub which occurs on prairies, fields, abandoned farmland, clearings and along roads and railroads throughout the State.A large, open, irregular, spreading shrub which typically grows 8-15' tall and spreads by root suckers to form thickets or large colonies in the wild. Sumac is a red or purplish-red powdered spice made from the berries and occasionally the leaves of the sumac bush. Known for its ability to naturalize and its unique spires of red berries, Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) is a … Rhus glabra, commonly called smooth sumac, is a Missouri native, deciduous shrub which occurs on prairies, fields, abandoned farmland, clearings and along roads and railroads throughout the State. Sumac Berries – Sumac has a bad reputation for being poisonous, but only a few species are actually toxic. In the northeast the staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina, synonym: Rhus hirta) predominates. Sumac is high in vitamins A and C, as well as being full of antioxidants. Considered a nuisance by most, this incredibly prolific plant is easy to spot and can be found nearly everywhere. Nutrition: Smooth sumac berries probably have their peak nutrition shortly after they ripen, even though you can harvest them into winter. 11,333) Smooth Sumac Latin Name: Rhus glabra Audubon Society Flowers (pg. It is found in Dinwiddie, Brunswick and Nottoway counties of Virginia (especially in and around the Ft. Pickett area) as well as North Carolina and Georgia. Tree-of-Heaven that is three to six years old is the same size as sumac, but will never produce the berry cluster. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Pony, Montana: Hops Press, LLC. Native Americans made good use of the chemical defenses that evolved to deter herbivores. In fact the red berries can be crushed into water to make a tart drink (sumac-ade), due to the high concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the red covering over the seed clusters. Songbird Diet Index. It shares the Latin name rhus with hundreds of other species, several of which are “poisonous,” but not lethal. They’re not even in the same genus. It shares the Latin name rhus with hundreds of other species, several of which are “poisonous,” but not lethal. They make excellent wildlife shrubs because they provide shelter and food for birds and small mammals. Smooth sumac is not poisonous. Smooth Sumac is very similar to the Staghorn Sumac, except it is a smaller plant, usually 10 to 15 feet high, that is normally a large shrub and it does not have hairy twigs or fruit clusters. Staghorn sumac, winged sumac, and smooth sumac are the most common sumac species in Georgia. Most varieties of sumac have fuzzy fruit, but the smooth sumac's fruit are smooth (hence the name smooth sumac). Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) is not the only species with forage-able fruit, but it is the most common species I find locally. It’s everywhere during the warm, summer months! Stems are reddish in color. Native Americans have long been using these sumacs, whose sour flavor is also a boon to foragers. Leave them overnight, or until the water turns red. A large, open, irregular, spreading shrub which typically grows 8-15' tall and spreads by root suckers to form thickets or large colonies in the wild. There are numerous wild edibles that can be harvested and enjoyed with youth. The leaflets arrange themselves opposite each other along the leaf stem (the petiole), with one extra leaflet at the leaf tip—an arrangement known as being pinnately compound. Rhus glabra. Or if they are moist from weather, you can air dry them for 1 week in a paper bag and then store them in a glass airtight container at room temperature. I use smooth sumac which is similar to staghorn except the berries are smooth without the “hairs”. Smooth and fragrant sumac are easy to distinguish. Winged sumac—which is also known by a variety of other common names, including dwarf sumac, flameleaf sumac, and shining sumac—is a multi-stemmed, deciduous shrub or small tree that thrives in dry soils in open areas where it often forms large colonies. They will retain more of their nutritive value, though, if they remain dry. (1951). Edible Parts: Fruit Oil Root Stem Edible Uses: Drink Oil Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 22, 46]. The uses and basic identification are the same for staghorn sumac(Rhus typhina). The three poisonous plants all have white-yellow berries, while the food sumacs you are seeking have red fruits. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. 2000. In early autumn, smooth sumac turns brilliant purplish red, heralding the fall color season. Smooth sumac and fragrant sumac have always been conspicuous in the fall, but now they seem more apparent to me. The twigs have a white sap flowing inside, which can be seen if the twig is broken. A rinse made from boiled berries was applied to stop bleeding after childbirth. Foragers in those areas should avoid sumac harvesting unless they have high confidence of their identification skills and have thoroughly familiarized themselves with the local species. In the fruit stage, poison sumac has white berries that hang dangling downward, while the flower and fruit clusters of all the Rhus species are orange to red and stand upward in tight clusters. In the fall the leaves turn a bright red. This variety has smooth bark, distinctive long pinate leaves and arching branches like staghorn sumac, and cone-shaped berry clusters, or bobs, which are easy to harvest and last through the winter. If you indeed do have poison sumac in your county, spend some time doing additional research with the resources listed below until you feel more comfortable with identification, so you don’t come home from foraging scratching a budding rash. In fact the red berries can be crushed into water to make a tart drink (sumac-ade), due to the high concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the red covering over the seed clusters. Sumac, Rhus, are known for their bright fall color and bold leaves. There are several types of edible sumac in the U.S. including smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), staghorn sumac (R. typhina), and three leaved sumac (R. trilobata). How To Make Sumac … But there are couple of safety issues to consider. Edible Parts The ripe fruit can be used in baking but the tiny black seeds are very hard and can be problematic for the teeth if chewed on. The staghorn sumac, named for the velvety covering on its new branches, similar to the velvet on a stags new antlers, is a common and widespread species of edible sumac. The first step before eating any wild edible is to positively identify it. Smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, is the only shrub or tree that is native to all of the 48 contiguous states. Smooth Sumac has none of the hair on the leaves. It also spreads by ground suckers to form a colony. American Wildlife and Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits. It has a tart, lemony taste and smell that comes from malic acid on the sumac berries. might for some people cause a mild contact dermititis, but not on the order of poison ivy. Jun 22, 2012 - This Pin was discovered by Wayne WIld. In addition to using the identification guide of your choice, here are a couple of features you should see on this plant: About this Species:  I am lucky enough to have found smooth, fragrant, winged and staghorn sumac all in my area! Edible sumacs are also related to poison sumac (Rhus vernix), which has drooping, white berry clusters and shiny leaves. Considered a nuisance by most, this incredibly prolific plant is easy to spot and can be found nearly everywhere. Any sumac variety that has red berries is edible, including staghorn sumac and smooth sumac. Staghorn Sumac has leaves that have a hairy leaf stem and rachis, the stem that the leaflets are attached to. The fruit is rather small and with very little flesh, but it is produced on fairly large panicles and so is easily harvested. It is similar to smooth sumac, except the leaves are untoothed. Nutrition: Smooth sumac berries probably have their peak nutrition shortly after they ripen, even though you can harvest them into winter. Noteworthy Characteristics. But identifying sumacs by foliage alone is harder. How to Identify Staghorn or Smooth Sumac. Smooth sumac often grows in stands and seems to like sunny banks. The berries are high in calcium and potassium (Elpel, 2013). Tannins extracted from leaves produce a brown dye. So while sumac fruit is not really a favorite wildlife food, it is an important winter survival food. The twigs have a white sap flowing inside, which can be seen if the twig is broken. To prepare edible sumac, you can dip the clusters in water (room-temperature) right after harvesting. Flower Description: Clusters of flowers are small, yellow-green and each flower forms into a berry on the erect cluster. To use Sumac for Spice (option 1) Lay sumac out on newspaper, with lots of air flow. Sumac species tend to be regional. Privacy • Legal & Trademarks • Campus Map. 2015. Sumacs are shrubs or small trees that often form colonies from their creeping, branched roots. They remind me of the Native Americans that first occupied this land, simply because they were such important sources of food, medicines, weaving materials and dyes. Native Shrubby Tree. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 21]. Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) is not the only species with forage-able fruit, but it is the most common species I find locally. Sumac is a deciduous shrub native to North America found in all 48 mainland states of USA and in southern Canada. Smooth sumac is not poisonous. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). All produce red berries with varying degrees of sourness. The edible … and making sumacade. Fruit Size: Each berry within the larger fruit cluster is about 1/8 inch (3.5 mm), round, red and velvety. Matthew Hunter shows how to use and identify smooth sumac(Rhus glabra). Flowers bloom in June and July they are in dense panicles of greenish-red small five petaled flowers. Smooth sumac has smooth stems covered with a white powder that comes off when you touch it. (Accessed March 2019). Smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) and staghorn sumac (R. typhina) are the most common and readily available landscape species. Copyrighted data used with permission. Sumac tends to get a bad rap for a number of reasons, but you might be surprised to find that smooth sumac is just one of many edible varieties of sumac. We don't often encounter poison sumac, as it prefers a wetter environment than the edible sumacs, like swamps. I have written several posts on staghorn sumac, by far the most common of the red-berried shrubs in this area but by no means the only edible variety.When I accidentally stumbled upon another variety, rhus glabra or smooth sumac, I was interested in finding out just what the differences between the two types is. (Burrows, G.E. It is not, though, as sour aslemon or vinegar. I’m in … Due to low moisture they freeze well kept in an airtight container. The fruit is persistent on the shrub into winter. They contain tannins, phytols, and three different compounds related to gallic acid which have antimicrobial activities. While sumac as a spice remains associated with the Middle East, North America is in fact home to several deliciously edible species. The edible … Smooth Sumac tends to spread by suckers and forms dense colonies but is an important winter wildlife food source. They can produce itchy rashes on contact, such as poison ivy, poison oak and even a species of sumac called … Nowadays, the most frequently seen tree that one could confuse with a sumac is the non-native, invasive and otherwise nasty Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima.) Red cone-shaped fruit clusters are held above the branches in summer, autumn and winter. Leaflets are narrowed or rounded at the base and sharply pointed at the tip with finely serrated edges. (2012) Flora of Virginia. I collected the treehoppers to photograph them and 7 hours later they were still amplectic. Male flowers have 5 petals and 5 yellow anthers, with a ring of nectaries below the anthers to reward pollinators. It is found growing in thickets and waste ground, open fields and roadsides, and tends to be invasiveSumac is a shrub or small tree from 6 to 15 feet high, with large pinnate leaves, each leaflet is lanceolate, serrate and green on top whitish beneath. But the fruit stage of the Rhus sumacs and their Toxicodendron cousins—poison sumac, poison ivy and poison oak — look pretty different. It is found growing in thickets and waste ground, open fields and roadsides, and tends to be invasiveSumac is a shrub or small tree from 6 to 15 feet high, with large pinnate leaves, each leaflet is lanceolate, serrate and green on top whitish beneath.

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